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© 2020 Centre for Natural Material Innovation and the University of Cambridge

University of Cambridge. Department of Architecture. 

1 Scroope Terrace,  CB2 1PX. Cambridge, UK

Koronaki, A. (ed) 2020. Towards carbon free construction: Cultivating and manufacturing our homes. Centre for Natural Material Innovation, University of Cambridge. Cambridge, United Kindom. https://www.cnmi.org.uk/post/towards-carbon-free-construction-cultivating-and-manufacturing-our-homes

Palahí, M., Pantsar, M., Costanza, R., Kubiszewski, I., Potočnik, J., Stuchtey, M., Nasi, R., Lovins, H., Giovannini, E., Fioramonti, L., Dixson-Declče, S., McGlade, J., Pickett, K., Wilkinson, R., Holmgren, J., Trebeck, K., Wallis, S., Ramage, M., Berndes, G., Akinnifesi, F.K., Ragnarsdóttir, K.V., Muys, B., Safonov, G., Nobre, A.D., Nobre, C., Ibañez, D., Wijkman, A., Snape, J., Bas, L. (2020). Investing in Nature as the true engine of our economy: A 10-point Action Plan for a Circular Bioeconomy of Wellbeing. Knowledge to Action 02, European Forest Institute. https://doi.org/10.36333/k2a02

Pantaloni, D.; Bourmaud, A.; Baley, C.; Clifford, M.J.; Ramage, M.H.; Shah, D.U. (2020) A Review of Permeability and Flow Simulation for Liquid Composite Moulding of Plant Fibre Composites. Materials, 13, 4811.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13214811


Foster, R.M., Ramage, M.H. (2020) Tall Timber. In Haries, K, Sharma B (eds) Nonconventional and Vernacular Construction Materials (2nd Edition),  Woodhead Publishing Series in Civil and Structural Engineering 467-4690 (24 pp) https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-102704-2.00017-2

Akinbade, Y., Harries, K.A., Sharma, B., Ramage, M.H. (2020) Variation of through-culm wall morphology in P. edulis bamboo strips used in glue-laminated bamboo beams, Construction and Building Materials, Volume 232,117248, (8 pp) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.117248

Fleming, P.H., Ramage, M.H. (2020) Full-scale construction and testing of stress-laminated columns made with low-grade wood, Construction and Building Materials, Volume 230,116952, (11pp) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.116952

Burridge, H.C., Wu, G., Reynolds, T.,Shah, D.U., Johnston, R., Scherman, O.A., Ramage, M.H.,  Linden, P.F. (2019). The transport of liquids in softwood: timber as a model porous medium. Scientific Reports 9, 20282.(14 pp) https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-55811-6

Shah, D., Konnerth, J., Ramage, M. H., & Gusenbauer, C. (2019) Mapping thermal conductivity across bamboo cell walls with scanning thermal microscopy. Scientific Reports (11 pp) https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-53079-4

Hadfield, H., Lasenby, J., Ramage, M., Doran, C. (2019) REFORM: Rotor Estimation From Object Resampling and Matching Adv.  Appl. Clifford Algebras 29: 67. (11 pp) https://doi.org/10.1007/s00006-019-0985-9

Reynolds, T.P.S, Sharma, B., Serrano, E., Gustafsson, P., Ramage, M.H. (2019) Fracture of laminated bamboo and the influence of preservative treatments, Composites Part B: Engineering, V174,107017-29 (9 pp), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2019.107017

Al Asali, M. W., Wagemann, E., Ramage, M. (2019), Living on the Move: Dwelling between temporality and permanence in Syria. J. Housing and the Built Environment. 34: 829–843.  (14 pp) https://doi.org/10.1007/s10901-019-09685-9

Chow, A., Ramage, M. H., & Shah, D. U. (2019). Optimising ply orientation in structural laminated bamboo. Construction and Building Materials, 212, 541-548. (8 pp) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.04.025

Ramage, M., Hall, T. J., Gatóo, A., & Al Asali, M. W. (2019). Rwanda Cricket Stadium: Seismically stabilised tile vaults. Structures, 18, 2-9. (7 pp) doi.org/10.1016/j.istruc.2019.02.004


Wagemann, E., Ramage, M. (2019) Bamboo for Construction in Pakistan: A Scoping Review. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Construction Materials, 172(1):3-9 01 Feb 2019 (7 pp) https://doi.org/10.1680/jcoma.17.00045

Shah D.U, Sharma B., Ramage, M.H. (2018) Processing bamboo for structural composites: Influence of preservative treatments on surface and interface properties.  International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives. Vol 85, pp15-22 (8 pp)  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijadhadh.2018.05.009 

Reynolds, T.P.S, Burridge, H.C., Johnston, R., Wu, G., Shah, D.U., Scherman, O.A., Linden, P.F., Ramage, M.H. (2018) Cell geometry across the ring structure of Sitka spruce. J R Soc Interface. Vol.15, Issue 142. (11 pp)  http://doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2018.0144


Penellum, M., Sharma, B., Shah, D.U., Foster, R.M., Ramage, M.H., (2018) Relationship of structure and stiffness in laminated bamboo composites. Construction and Building Materials, Vol.165, pp 241-246 (6 pp) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.12.166

Ramage, M.H. (2018) Supertall timber: Functional natural materials for high-rise structures. Bridge, Vol.48, Issue 1, pp33-36 (4 pp.)

Wu, Y., Shah, D.U., Wang, B., Liu, j., Ren, X., Ramage, M.H., Scherman, O.A. (2018) Biomimetic Supramolecular Fibers Exhibit Water-Induced Supercontraction. Advanced Materials, 1707169. (5 pp) https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.201707169

Sharma, B., Shah, D.U., Beaugrand, J., Janecek, E.R., Scherman, O.A., Ramage, M. H., (2018) Chemical composition of processed bamboo for structural application. Cellulose, Vol 25, issue 6, 3255-3266 (12 pp) https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-018-1789-0

Bourmaud, A., Dhakal, H., Habrant, A., Padovani, J., Siniscalco, D., Ramage, M.H., Beaugrand, J., ShahD.U. (2017) Exploring the potential of waste leaf sheath date palm fibres for composite reinforcement through a structural and mechanical analysis, Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, V.103, Dec, pp 292-303, (14 pp) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2017.10.017.

Foster, R., Ramage, M., and Reynolds, T.(2017) Rethinking CTBUH Height Criteria in the Context of Tall Timber. Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat Journal. Issue IV. Pp 28-33. (6 pp). https://www.jstor.org/stable/90020907

Ramage, M.H., Sharma, B., Shah, D.U., Reynolds, T.P.S. (2017). Thermal relaxation of laminated bamboo for folded shells. Materials and Design, Volume 132, 15 October 2017, Pages 582-589 (8 pp)    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2017.07.035.

Reynolds, T., Foster, R., Bregulla, J., Chang, W-S., Harris, R., Ramage, M.H.  (2017) Lateral Load Resistance of Cross-laminated Timber Shear Walls. Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 143, Issue 12, pp 1943-1954. (6 pp)  https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0001912 

Shah, D., Reynolds, T., & Ramage, M. H.  (2017).  The strength of plants: theory and experimental methods to measure the mechanical properties of stems. Journal of Experimental Botany, Volume 68, Issue 16, pp 4497–4516, (20 pp) https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erx245

Wu, Y., Shah, D.U., Liu, C., Yu, Z., Liu, J., Ren, X.,  Rowland, M. , Abell, C., Ramage M.H., Scherman, O.A., (2017).  “Bioinspired supramolecular fibers drawn from a multiphase self-assembled hydrogel,” PNAS. vol. 114 no. 31, pp 8163–8168 (6 pp). www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1705380114

Sanner, J, Fernandez, A, Foster, R, Ramage, M, Snapp, T, Weihing, D (2017) River Beech Tower:  A Tall Timber Experiment. Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat Journal, Issue 2, p40-46 (7 pp).

Wu, G., Shah, D.U., Janeček, E., Burridge, H., Reynolds, T., Fleming, P., Linden, P., Ramage, M. & Scherman, O.A. (2017) Predicting the Pore-Filling Ratio in Lumen Impregnated Wood. Wood Science and Technology. 51:1277–1290 (14 pp)  DOI 10.1007/s00226-017-0933-6 6

Janeček, E., Walsh-Korb, Z., Bargigia, I., Farina, A., Ramage, M., D Andrea, C., Nevin, A., et al. (2017). Time-resolved laser spectroscopy for the in situ characterization of methacrylate monomer flow within spruce. Wood Science and Technology, 51 (2), 227-242. (16 pp)  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00226-016-0882-5

Ramage, M.H., Burridge, H., Busse-Wicher, M., Fereday,  G., Reynolds, T., Shah, D.U., Wu, G., Yu, L., Fleming, RP, Densley-Tingley, D., Allwood, J., Dupree, P., Linden, P.F. , Scherman, O. (2017) The wood from the trees: The use of timber in construction, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 68, Part 1, pp 333-359, (27 pp)  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2016.09.107.

Ramage, M.H., Foster, R.M., Smith, S., Flanagan, K. and Bakker, R. (2017). “Super Tall Timber: Design research for the next generation of natural structure”, 2017. The Journal Of Architecture Vol. 22:1, 104-122 (19 pp). http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13602365.2016.1276094

De Wolf, C., Ramage, M., Ochsendorf, J. (2016). Low carbon vaulted masonry structures. Journal of the International Association for Shell and Spatial Structures.  57 (4) n 190. 275-84, (10 pp) http://dx.doi.org/10.20898/j.iass.2016.190.854

Sharma, B., Bauer, H., Schickhofer, G., Ramage, M.H., (2016). Mechanical characterisation of structural laminated bamboo. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers-Structures and Buildings. 170 (4) pp 250-264 (15 pp).  https://doi.org/10.1680/jstbu.16.00061

Foster, R., Reynolds, T., and Ramage, M. (2016). "Proposal for Defining a Tall Timber Building." J. Struct. Eng. , 142(12). Pp 1943-54 (9 pp) . https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0001615 

Foster, R.M. and Ramage, M.H. (2016). "Briefing: Super Tall Timber - Oakwood Tower", Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Construction Materials, Volume 170 Issue 3, pp. 118-122. (5 pp) http://dx.doi.org/10.1680/jcoma.16.00034

Reynolds, T., Sharma, B., Harries, K., & Ramage, M. (2016). Dowelled structural connections in laminated bamboo and timber. Composites Part B: Engineering, 90, 232–240. (9 pp). http://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2015.11.045

Shah, D. U., Bock, M. C. D., Mulligan, H., & Ramage, M. H. (2016). Thermal conductivity of engineered bamboo composites. Journal of Materials Science, 51(6), 2991–3002. (12 pp) http://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-015-9610-z


Liu, X., Smith, G., Jiang, Z., Bock, M., Boeck, F., Frith, O., Gatóo, A., Liu, K., Mulligan, H., Semple, K., Sharma, B., & Ramage, M. (2016). Nomenclature for Engineered Bamboo. BioResources, 11(1), 1141-1161. (21 pp). doi.org/10.15376/biores.11.1.1141-1161

Wagemann, E, Gatóo, A, Ramage, M.H. (2015) “Bahay Kawayan. Post Disaster Housing in Bamboo.” ARQ,  August, no.90, Estructuras Desmontables, Ediciones ARQ: pp.68-69. (2 pp). https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/bitstream/handle/1810/292719/en_art12.pdf?sequence=3

Sharma B, Gatóo A, Ramage M.H. (2015) “Effect of processing methods on the mechanical properties of engineered bamboo.” Journal of Construction and Building Materials, 83: pp 95-101. (7 pp). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.02.048

Sharma B, Gatóo A, Bock M, Ramage M.H. (2015) “Engineered Bamboo for structural applications.” Journal of Construction and Building Materials, 81: pp 66-73. (8 pp). https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-102704-2.00021-4

[Ramage, M.H., Hall, T., and Rich, P. (2014) “Light Earth Designs: Natural Material, Natural Structure” Earthen Architecture: Past, Present and Future. CRC Press pp 305-310. (6 pp).

Sharma, B., Gatóo, A., Bock, M., Mulligan H., Ramage M.H.  (2014). “Engineered bamboo: state of the art.” Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Construction Materials. 168:2, pp 57-67. (11 pp). https://doi.org/10.1680/coma.14.00020

Gatóo, A., Sharma, B., Bock, M., Mulligan H., Ramage M.H.  (2014). “Sustainable structures: bamboo standards and building codes.” Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Engineering Sustainability 167 (ES5). pp 189–96. (8 pp). https://doi.org/10.1680/ensu.14.00009

Fleming, P, Smith S, and Ramage, M.H. (2014.) “Measuring-Up in Timber: a Critical Perspective on Mid-and High-Rise Timber Building Design.” Architectural Research Quarterly 18 (01). pp 20–30. (11 pp). doi:10.1017/S1359135514000268

Farina, A, Bargigia, I, Janeček, E, Walsh, Z, D’Andrea, C, Nevin, A, Ramage, M.H., Scherman, O, and Pifferi, A. (2014.) “Nondestructive Optical Detection of Monomer Uptake in Wood Polymer Composites.” Optics Letters 39 (2). pp 228–31. (4 pp). https://doi.org/10.1364/OL.39.000228

Trujillo, D., Ramage, M.H. and Chang, W-S. (2013). “Lightly Modified Bamboo for Structural Applications.” Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Construction Materials 166 (4). pp 238–47. (10 pp). https://doi.org/10.1680/coma.12.00038

Heath, A. Paine, K., Goodhew, S., Ramage, M.H. and Lawrence, M. (2013). “The Potential for Using Geopolymer Concrete in the UK.”Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Construction Materials 166 (4). pp 195–203. (9 pp). https://doi.org/10.1680/coma.12.00030

Atamturktur, S, Li, T., Ramage, M.H., and Farajpour, I. (2012). “Load Carrying Capacity Assessment of a Scaled Masonry Dome: Simulations Validated with Non-Destructive and Destructive Measurements.” Construction and Building Materials 34. Elsevier: pp 418–29.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.02.031

Brown, D., Saito, K., Liu, M., Spence, R., So, E., and Ramage, Michael H. (2012). “The Use of Remotely Sensed Data and Ground Survey Tools to Assess Damage and Monitor Early Recovery Following the 12.5. 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake in China.” Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering 10 (3). Springer: pp 741–64. (25 pages). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-011-9318-7

Ramage, M.H. and R.H. Tykot. (2011) “Geological analysis of Lydian building stones and their quarry sources,” in C. Ratte, Lydian Architecture, Archaeological Exploration of Sardis, pp127-132. (6 pages)

Ramage, M.H., Ochsendorf, J. and Rich, P. (2010) “Sustainable Shells: New African vaults built with soil-cement tiles,” Journal of the International Association of Shell and Spatial Structures, Vol.51 No. 4 December, pp 255-261. (7 pages)  https://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/iass/jiass/2010/00000051/00000004/art00006

Ramage, M.H., Ochsendorf, J., Rich, P., Bellamy, J.K., Block, P. (2010). “Design and Construction of the Mapungubwe National Park Interpretive Centre, South Africa,” African Technology Development Forum Special Issue: Architecture and Development, October, pp 14-23. (10 pages). https://block.arch.ethz.ch/brg/files/Ramage_2010_ATDF_Mapungubwe_1425208976.pdf

Ramage, M.H., Rich, P., Ochsendorf, J., & Fitchett, A. (2009). “Mapungubwe: National Park Interpretive Centre.” Architecture South Africa: Journal of the South African Institute of Architects. (Jan-Feb), pp 28-30.


Ramage, M.H. (2009) “Designing Shell and Membrane Structures” Form and Forces. Chapter 12. E.  Allen and  W. Zalewski (Eds.), John Wiley & Sons. pp 331-354.


Ramage, M.H.  (2007). “Guastavino’s Vaulting Revisited,” Construction History, Vol. 22, November, pp. 47-60. https://www.jstor.org/stable/41613910


Ramage, M.H. (2007). “Structural Vaulting Built with Aircrete Masonry,” Masonry International, Vol. 20, No. 1 April, pp 29-34. https://www.masonry.org.uk/downloads/structural-vaulting-built-with-aircrete-masonry/